Home is Where the Stars are

Michael Bomburg spends his nights skateboarding at a local park, playing Halo online with friends and preparing dinosaur chicken nuggets for dinner – his routine resembles that of any normal human.  But by day, Michael fills a role that many only dream of: he’s a rocket scientist.

Q: Growing up, what interested you about space?

A: I think that it’s the idea of the unknown and what that does for my imagination.  There’s a mystery about outer space that you can’t find on Earth. Earth just seems so familiar, and the curtains are so easy to pull back that it kills the imagination. The preconceived notions of a place on earth can be confirmed or shattered by stepping on a plane or opening a book. But the universe is so large and the possibilities so endless that it lets the imagination run wild.

Q: Before applying to college, did you need to show that you were capable of being an “aerospace engineer”?

A: No, the college application process was pretty superficial. Though, I believe that capability is based on passion – passion for the subject matter is why I excelled.

Q: Did you have an internship while you were in college?

A: I interned at the NASA Langley Research Center. NASA does a great job at letting your creativity drive a design or concept.  In that sort of environment, new ideas are fostered much better than in the private industry. One thing I was told there that always stuck with me is “it’s everyone else’s job to tell us why something is impossible, and it’s our job to show them why they are wrong”.

Q: Where did you land after you graduated?

A: My first job was as a propulsion engineer – which involves designing ways to propel satellites – at a company called Space Systems Loral in California. “Propulsion engineer” is one of those positions where you wear a lot of hats.  Some days I was at a desk improving some of our daily responsibilities, but a few weeks out of the year I worked mission control during satellite orbit launches.  But now I’ve now moved on from that job and work as a quality assurance engineer in Europe.  This position exposes me to far greater number of our spacecraft parts with new sets of problems to solve.

Q: How does it make you feel knowing that your work is being used?

A: What I do helps to make the world smaller. What I mean by this is that everyone is able to talk to friends and family on the other side of the planet without any delay because of the technology that I support.  I think that’s pretty neat.

Q: Down the road, where do you see yourself?

A: Ideally, somewhere in deep space. Otherwise I would like to be an active participant in manned spaceflight programs, Mission Director would be nice.


* Name has been changed as the interviewee wished to remain anonymous

A Space Cadet’s Guide to the Black Hole

At the end of its life, a dying star will be held in balance by two opposing forces.  While the inward pressure of gravity attempts to collapse the star, radiation emitted from the star acts against it.   Every once in a while, however, Supergiant stars implode because they’re not producing the radiation energy that usually opposes the unrelenting force of gravity.  The star’s entire mass is broken down bit-by-bit and compressed into a smaller space.  At this point, the “speed of light” isn’t even fast enough to escape such a concentrated grip.  This discovery supports Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which states that gravity influences light’s motion and the warping of “spacetime.”

Since no light can get out, black holes aren’t visible to the naked eye. However, special tools and telescopes can help astronomers find these sneaky phenomena.  The tools work by mapping stars near a black hole and analyzing how differently they behave compared to other stars through a process called gravitational lensing.  There could be as many as ten million to a billion black holes in our Milky Way galaxy alone.

Black holes vary in size and density, and scientists believe that the smallest black holes are roughly the size of one atom (the most basic building block of matter, or “stuff”).  While they are incredibly tiny, they still have the mass of a large mountain.  On the other hand, supermassive black holes – thought to be buried at the heart of all galaxies – have a mass 20 times that of our Sun’s.  That’s right.  At the very least, each large galaxy in the universe houses one in its core.  The supermassive black hole located at the center of the Milky Way is called Sagittarius A, named after the familiar zodiac constellation.  This particular black hole has a mass equal to about four million Suns.  Not impressed?  A nearby spiral galaxy, M81, hosts a supermassive black hole 70 million times more massive than our Sun at its epicenter.

Everything that makes up a black hole is vacuous, except for the infinitely dense central point called a “singularity.” Here, the pull of gravity has infinite strength and spacetime has an infinite curve. In fact, it’s useless to speak of space and time because, at the singularity, they cease to exist.

Interestingly, black holes spin on an axis and scientists believe that outflowing jets of energized particles are powered by this spin. Areas surrounding black holes are wrought with high energy X-ray radiation that could originate from these jets. The radiation illuminates the black hole, reflecting the light and making it a source of X-rays. Astronomers can use this reflection to monitor how fast the black hole spins.

There exists a region around black holes that affect the movement of objects.  Gravitational forces surrounding a black hole’s ergosphere create an environment where objects can no longer remain stationary.  To recap, Einstein’s theory of relativity states that rotating mass drags surrounding spacetime with it.   Ergospheres are not just present in black holes, but also in other cosmic objects with mass, including Earth.  Objects that meander into the ergosphere can escape from being “sucked in” to a black hole, but only if they’re fast enough.

A “point of no return”, the event horizon represents a point beyond which nothing can escape because of the powerful gravitational forces present.  Not even light – one of the fastest traveling energy sources known to mankind – can break through.  Many people often think an object that approaches an event horizon will be destroyed.  However, if an object merely enters its perimeter, the space around it will appear distorted.  Once an object falls through, it is doomed.  Imagine an invisible force dragging you to until you reach a particular point, and absolutely nothing can match its strength.  Yeah, that’s about the gist of it.

Gaia’s Trip Across the Milky Way

On December 19, 2013 at the Guiana Space Centre, the ESA launched Gaia, a 32-foot satellite destined to trek 1 million miles of uncharted territory in space while surveying more than a billion stars.  Nearly a month after its launch, Gaia arrived at the second Lagrangian (L2) where it could continue its mission—to assemble a digital map of our home galaxy, the Milky Way.  For the next five years, Gaia will scan the Milky Way, making about 40 million observations each day.

Before Gaia started scanning the stars, the satellite had to go through a set of procedures to test its programs.  Putting together a map of an entire galaxy is not an easy task, so the Kourou Project Team must confirm that all systems run smoothly by finding and fixing any issues.  In February, the team found that external sunlight was unexpectedly bending around Gaia’s sunshield and entering its protective thermal vent.  The Kourou Project Team couldn’t have found this error at a better time because it would affect Gaia’s ability to measure fainter stars.  As a solution, the team proposed to tilt the shield slightly to eliminate stray light.

So what will this map tell us about our cosmic neighborhood?  When Gaia’s mission is complete, there will be 1 petabyte of data – enough to fit on 200,000 DVDs!  This information will help scientists piece together a picture of the Milky Way’s formation and composition.  The data Gaia gathers allows researchers to learn in-depth details about each star like its brightness, temperature and chemical makeup.  Scientists hope that with Gaia’s help, they will discover new space objects in our territory—exoplanets, comets, icy bodies, and possibly even distant supernovae.  Who knows what astronomers will find years from now, looking back through Gaia’s massive database armed with a generation’s worth of data and knowledge about our galaxy.

Russia Strong-arms US in Space Race

Now that tensions are high over Russia’s annexation of Ukraine’s Republic of Crimea, Russia is threatening to cease US access to the International Space Station (ISS).  Additionally, Russia plans to ban the US from purchasing rocket engines used to launch military satellites into space.  This strategic political move comes in response to the US’s sanctions limiting exports to Russia.  After the US Space Shuttle stopped operating in 2011, the only existing mode of traveling to the ISS is Russia’s Soyuz spacecraft, putting the power of the space race back in Russia’s hands.  No one is quite sure how Russia will pull off its vow to stop carrying US astronauts to the ISS via Soyuz once 2020 rolls around.  An alternative to the Space Shuttle, the SpaceX manned Dragon craft, is the most likely candidate since NASA’s Orion would not be ready for launch until 2021.

This decision comes at the tail end of a larger effort to revamp Russia’s space exploration efforts.  President Vladimir Putin recently signed a declaration to split the Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) into two, forming a new organization.  The state-run United Rocket and Space Corporation (URSC) will be in charge of rocket and space equipment production, including the development, creation, testing, technical servicing and utilization of military equipment, rockets and their components.  On the other hand, Roscosmos will maintain the state contract, coordination and operation of its research institutes and ground infrastructures.  By creating two institutions, Russia hopes to streamline production and improve quality control, putting an end to disastrous situations like last July’s proton rocket crash.  Space related initiatives have received negative feedback in the past from the Russian Audit Chamber because the industry spends four times more than the global average on poor quality technology.  Nonetheless, Russia still plans to pursue up to five lunar missions between 2015 and 2020 to examine the Moon’s surface resources.

Journey to the Red Planet

That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”  When Neil Armstrong took man’s first steps on an alien terrain – and one that wasn’t Earth’s – in 1969 and uttered these words, he instilled fascination and awe in the hearts of millions.  Many have fantasized the exploration and colonization of our sister planet, but the prospect of earthlings actually traveling to Mars has never been so attainable.

Now we’ve got another “space race” brewing and everyone wants to make their mark.  For years, rovers have mapped Mars’ landscape, transmitting data and images to eager scientists.  Currently, several organizations around the world are investing in technology to thrust mankind into relatively unknown territory.

An emerging private spaceflight program Mars One, based in the Netherlands, announced that it is in the process of forging partnerships with leading technology companies to develop the means necessary for exploration.  By 2025 – a mere 11 years from now – Mars One plans to form a human colony on the red planet.

Before they continue this pursuit, however, the lander and satellite would need to test technologies necessary to sustain life.  For example, spacesuit designers are currently testing a prototype to see if it could withstand Mars’ atmosphere.  Any suit for a human explorer must provide plentiful oxygen, comfortable temperature, and pressure and radiation shields.

Toxins present in the dust may also pose a threat to human health, so the suits need to withstand yet another element.  Many are skeptical of these suits’ ability to control such a tall order of requirements.  To test the dexterity, the Austrian Space Program set up obstacle courses in four separate locations.  Among the suits tested were the NDX-2 suit by the Human Spaceflight Laboratory at the University of North Dakota.

Another initiative, led by NASA, will send out deep-space explorer Orion this fall.  Launching 3,600 miles above Earth, Orion’s maiden voyage will be unmanned and will, eventually, carry a human crew to Mars.

While many organizations are making efforts to take humans to a whole new world, they still rely on crowd funding and sponsorship to develop the necessary technology.  They also need young, innovative minds (like yours) to survive!

About Superverse

Superverse is an e-zine for anyone interested in space, covering a variety of current topics.  Originally, the magazine was printed as a 16-page magazine mock-up.  However, because we live in an age where most people read news online, it seemed more appropriate to transition this publication from print to web.

Two years ago, I entered a program where I learned the importance of properly communicating scientific initiatives to the general public and found my calling.  Interest in STEM disciplines among younger generations has declined significantly in the past decade, so my goal with Superverse is to reach teenagers and pique their interests.  Additionally, I think there exists a serious disparity in the way science is communicated to the public.  In my courses, I have learned that there is a severe lack of effective communication that leads to misinterpretations of the field.  I believe that when clear, concise and relatable information is provided, readers tend to receive and retain it better.  In an effort to follow my passion and restore communication between scientists and the public, I started working on this zine.

Without further adieu, I give you the mission statement of Superverse:

We the people of Earth are curious creatures who marvel at the unknown.  Our mission is to explore and investigate all things happening in the universe and put them right within your reach.